PAM Level Skews
The Eye mode PAM Level Skews measurement measures the skew (seconds or UI) of each level (0, 1, 2, 3) of a PAM4 eye diagram relative to the average center time of all levels. On NRZ signals, this measurement will measure the level one and zero skew relative to each other.
|PAM-N Analysis Setup Dialog Box Settings|
|Receiver Sample Timing||Configures the timing for sampling the signal data for all PAM measurements in Eye/Mask mode.|
|Eye Center Location||Selects the basis for determining the location of an eye's center on the waveform: at maximum eye width or maximum eye height.|
|Eye Level Width||Defines the timespan (in percentage of symbol width) over which an eye's amplitude level is measured.|
|Time of Level||Specifies the method used to locate the time at which to measure an eye's level.|
|Time Units||Sets the time units for measurement: seconds or unit intervals.|
The skew of each level is calculated by:
- For each level, determine the time at which the level's thickness is at a minimum value. The minimum value is determined by minimum RMS or peak-to-peak values (Level Time Method setting).
- Calculate the average time for all levels measured in step 1.
- Skew for each level is the time of the level calculated in step 1 relative to the average time calculated in step 2.
- Display the measurements in the units specified in the Time Units setting.
This measurement can be applied to both PAM4 and NRZ waveforms.
- Select Eye/Mask Mode.
- Click Auto Scale in the menu toolbar.
- Click the toolbar's PAM tab.
- On the toolbar, locate and click the Level Skews button.