Remove S2P Operator

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Flex Apps:
Meas. mode:
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Use the Remove S2P function to remove the effects of a two-port element from your measurements. This operator is easier to set up than the DeEmbedding operator, however the measurement accuracy is reduced. Before you can use this operator, you must create an S-parameter file of the device to be removed. Import 2-port S-Parameter file into this operator (filename extension of .s2p).

The Deconvolution Setup dialog has several options to compensate for noise effects as well.


Select the Flip S-parameters field to compensate for reversed port numbering in the file. That is, select this option if the file's S-parameter data is not defined with the ports located as shown in the following diagram, This ensures that the S-parameter order is properly interpreted.

Clear the Align Input and Output Waveforms field to view the delay introduced by your device. By default, this field is normally selected and the input and output waveforms are aligned.

Extracting 2-Port Data from a 4-Port S-Parameter File

It is possible to import data from a 4-port S-parameter file (.s4p). After you open a 4-port S-parameter file, two additional dialog fields appear that configure how 2-port information is extracted from the file. These fields are 4 Port Numbering and 2 Port Extraction and they are shown in this figure. In the following table, locate the illustration in the first column that matches how the ports are numbered in your device and the corresponding S-Parameter file. The columns in the row show the settings required to properly extract and interpret the required 2-port information.

Dialog-Box Settings for Extracting 2-Port Information from 4-Port S-Parameters Files
Port Configuration in s4p File 4 Port Numbering
2 Port Extraction
Flip S-Parameters
Common Mode
Ports 1⇔2
Ports 3⇔4
Common Mode
Ports 1⇔3
Ports 2⇔4
Common Mode
Ports 1⇔2
Ports 3⇔4
Common Mode
Ports 1⇔3
Ports 2⇔4

Noise Processing

None Selection

The option None does not make any special considerations for aliased noise. This is an appropriate choice when the waveform is known to have no aliased components, such as from a real-time or simulated source. This also is the preferred choice when dealing with averaged waveforms where the desired outcome is to remove noise and interference components that are not correlated to the trigger signal.

Process Spectrum Selection

The option Process Spectrum works by applying the transfer function of the filter to the power spectrum of the noise to determine the appropriate magnitude of the noise on the output signal.

By tracking the accumulated effects of the filtering operations, accurate noise processing can be done even when chaining operations as illustrated in the following figure. In addition to the sampled waveform, information about the acquisition channel and noise power spectrum are maintained in each signal and appropriately processed by each filter. The complete set of auxiliary information is also included when storing FlexDCA waveforms in the *.wfmx file format.

The default behavior of the Process Spectrum noise processing option is to use the noise power spectrum of the input signal. If the input signal is a sampling scope channel with SIRC active, this spectrum will be established by the measured hardware response of the channel. For other channels, the response will be assumed Gaussian with a 3 dB frequency corresponding to the nominal channel bandwidth. This behavior can be overridden by clearing the Track Input Response checkbox and manually entering a bandwidth. If this option is utilized the response will be presumed Gaussian with the selected 3 dB bandwidth.

Preserve RMS Selection

The option Preserve RMS is appropriate when the noise bandwidth is very low relative to the channel and filter bandwidth. It is also appropriate when the aliased components are known to have most of the power within a range of in-band frequencies. This could be from laser RIN, for example, or from intentionally modulated interference/crosstalk. When Preserve RMS is selected, the RMS magnitude of the aliased components will be scaled by the DC gain (the sum of the taps) of the filter. For the low-pass filters (Bessel, Butterworth, Gaussian, Sinc), the DC gain is unity. For the equalizers and embedding/de-embedding operators, the DC gain depends upon the settings of the operator.

FlexDCA Waveform Processing

The noise processing feature was added in FlexDCA version A.06.60 and above.

The Remove S2P operator is not available in TDR/TDT mode.

This operator requires a single-valued waveform, as opposed to an eye diagram. Be sure that your trigger setup results in a single-valued waveform at the input to this operator. This can be acheived using an external pattern trigger or by using pattern lock. If you are using an external pattern trigger, you may ignore this note.

The convolution process used by this operator requires that the measurement circuit and the simulation circuit be linear and time-invariant (small-signal analysis requirements).

Jitter measurements can be made on the Remove S2P operator's output waveform.

To Configure the Operator

  1. Drag the operator into the construction area.
  2. Click on the operator to open the Deconvolution Setup dialog. The dialog box's message prompts you to open a 2-port S-parameter file for your device. You can also open a 4-port device, although the required dialog-box options are more entailed..
  3. Click Browse to locate the S-parameter file for your device.
  4. Set the options as described at the beginning of this topic.
  5. Close the dialog.

The operator's Display Setup configures the manner in which the resulting waveform is displayed including both vertical and horizontal scaling. Track selection to allows the output waveform to track changes to the scaling of the input waveform. Track is the default setting. In addition, you can turn the waveform's display off or on and select the color of the trace.

Use the Name button to give the displayed waveform a custom identifying name which is show in the Signals area on the display graticule and in the Signals palette. Custom names are very helpful for screen captures or when multiple waveforms are displayed.

The Graph Window is available when multiple waveform content windows are used.

Use the Signal Type's Track selection to allows the waveform type (NRZ or PAM4) to track the input waveform's type. Track is the default setting. If input waveform's type cannot be automatically determined, select Manual to specify the waveform type.